The U.S. JGOFS program has consisted of six cooperating, complementary
activity elements – time-series measurements at Hawaii and Bermuda, process
studies, global surveys, synthesis and modeling efforts and data management.
U.S. JGOFS is the U.S. national program of JGOFS, an international program
sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). U.S JGOFS is also an
element of the U.S. Global Change Research program. The early history and
broad framework of the U.S. JGOFS program has been described in a Science
Plan (Long-Range Plan, U.S. JGOFS, 1990). The Plan includes a full
description of the five JGOFS program elements. A brief summary follows.
Time-series: Starting in 1988, JGOFS initiated two time-series
measurement programs at Hawaii and Bermuda time series stations (HOT and
BATS, respectively). The objective of the time-series effort is to provide
well-sampled seasonal resolution of biogeochemical variability at a limited
number of ocean observatories, provide support and background measurements
for process-oriented research, as well as test and validate observations for
biogeochemical models. The HOT and BATS records now span a period greater
than 10 years with well over 100 successful cruises at each site and
permanent moorings in place to assess ocean variability in the oligotrophic
Process Studies: The
objective of the process studies component has been to target key process
links in our current models of the oceanic biogeochemical system and enhance
our causal understanding of the processes. The goal of process-oriented
studies is to provide a mechanistic understanding of ocean processes in
sufficient detail to predict and stimulate biogeochemical fluxes at
representative sites in the ocean. The four major U.S. JGOFS Process Studies
CO2 Survey: The rationale for the large-scale survey
component of JGOFS is to provide a composite, basin to global scale,
biogeochemical view of the ocean. The large-scale survey of basin-to-global
oceanic CO2 parameters conducted as part of the WOCE Hydrographic
Program cruises is a major component of the JGOFS survey program element.
Satellite Observations of Ocean Color: Satellites can provide a
large-scale view of the ocean. In particular, the ocean color sensor
Sea-viewing Wide Field Sensor (SeaWiFS) is of interest to JGOFS due to its
ability to measure surface chlorophyll
Synthesis and Modeling: The main objective of the Synthesis and
Modeling Project (SMP) is to synthesize knowledge gained from the U.S. JGOFS
and related studies into models that reflect our current understanding of the
ocean carbon cycle and its associated uncertainties. In particular, the
processes that control carbon partitioning among ocean reservoirs, and the
implications on ocean/atmosphere carbon exchange, are emphasized.
Data Management: The Data Management Office (DMO) was developed to meet the data management needs
of U.S. JGOFS. The DMO manages a data system which provides access to U.S.
JGOFS data sets comprised of information generated from the program's five complementary activity elements.